Beta-AIBA, a new weight-loss supplement

A new slimming supplement has become available recently in online stores and we, the ignoramus compilers of this free webzine, freely admit we are very excited about it. The stuff is called beta-aminoisobutyric acid [beta-AIBA for short], and it works in a different way to all other substances you find in weight-loss supplements.

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The chemical structure of beta-AIBA is shown below. It’s a simple compound, made in the body by muscle cells, which synthesise it from valine and thymine. More of it is made when the muscles are active. So researchers regard beta-AIBA as a myokines, and suspect that it plays a role in some of the positive effects of physical exercise.

Antaeus Labs [antaeuslabs.com] have marketed beta-AIBA as a slimming supplement. This supplements manufacturer sells the stuff in powder form. If you are considering using beta-AIBA it’s best to start with a dose of 500 mg per day, advises priceplow.com. [priceplow.com May 19, 2015] That’s an eighth of a teaspoon.

Mechanism
In 2014 researchers at Harvard University published the results of an animal study in Cell Metabolism which reveal how beta-AIBA works. The figure below shows summary of that study.

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Beta-AIBA is released by the muscles and then stimulates fat burning in the liver and in fat cells. This is made possible because beta-AIBA transforms white fat cells into fat cells that resemble brown fat cells. The researchers call these white fat cells that have been transformed by beta-AIBA ‘beige fat cells’.

White fat cells are the classic fat cells; all they are capable of doing is storing fat. Brown fat cells are fat cells that can convert the fat they have stored into heat. Adults have few brown fat cells left, but the number can be increased by exposure to factors such as cold and some substances that imitate the effects of adrenalin.

The figure below shows that in the fat cells of mice that had been given 100 mg [+] or 170 mg [++] beta-AIBA daily in their drinking water there was an increase in activity of the typical ‘brown’ fat cell genes such as UCP-1, CIDEA and PGC-1-alpha.

Mice in a control group were given no beta-AIBA. [-]

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Effects
As a result of being given 100 mg beta-AIBA every day the mice lost weight. And the weight loss was pretty much all accounted for by loss of fat mass.

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The animals didn’t become more active [below left] or less active [below right].

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The decrease in weight was entirely due to an increase in calorie burning.

Conclusion
“We identify bèta-AIBA as a novel small molecule myokine representing the first in its class of non-adrenergic activators of the thermogenic program in white adipose tissue”, the researchers summarised. “The identification of bèta-AIBA as a […] exercise triggered signal has significant implications not only for our understanding of exercise and its protective role against the development of metabolic diseases, but also for potential therapeutics for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.”

Watch this space.

?-Aminoisobutyric Acid Induces Browning of White Fat and Hepatic ?-Oxidation and Is Inversely Correlated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

Summary

The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) regulates metabolic genes in skeletal muscle and contributes to the response of muscle to exercise. Muscle PGC-1? transgenic expression and exercise both increase the expression of thermogenic genes within white adipose. How the PGC-1?-mediated response to exercise in muscle conveys signals to other tissues remains incompletely defined. We employed a metabolomic approach to examine metabolites secreted from myocytes with forced expression of PGC-1?, and identified ?-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) as a small molecule myokine. BAIBA increases the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes in white adipocytes and ?-oxidation in hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo through a PPAR?-mediated mechanism, induces a brown adipose-like phenotype in human pluripotent stem cells, and improves glucose homeostasis in mice. In humans, plasma BAIBA concentrations are increased with exercise and inversely associated with metabolic risk factors. BAIBA may thus contribute to exercise-induced protection from metabolic diseases.

© 2014 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Source: http://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/abstract/S1550-4131

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