If you train because you want to lose weight, you’re best off doing combination training. The combination of cardio training and strength training helps weight loss more than cardio training on its own and more than strength training alone write researchers at Curtin University of Technology, Australia, in BMC Public Health.
The researchers did an experiment with a group of just under eighty overweight men and women aged 40 to 66. At the start of the experiment the test subjects had an average BMI of over 33, which means a number of them were obese. None of the subjects did any sports.
The researchers got their subjects, apart from a control group [Control], to train for 12 weeks consecutively. The subjects had to exercise for 30 minutes in the gym five times a week.
The researchers deliberately kept the training volume low: they wanted to remain within the limits of the standard advice of 30 minutes of exercise daily.
A first experimental group ran on a treadmill at a level of exertion whereby the heart rate rose to 60 percent of the maximum [Aerobic]. That doesn’t require a particularly intensive effort – you can keep it up for hours.
A second group did half an hour of strength training each workout [Resistance]. The subjects did basic exercises including the leg-press, leg-curl, leg-extension, bench-press, rowing, biceps-curls, lunges, dumbbell-raise, calf-lift and triceps-extension. They used 75 percent of the weight at which they could just manage 1 rep.
A third group ran for 15 minutes on the treadmill and did 15 minutes of weight training each workout [Combination].
After 12 weeks the subjects in the Combination group had lost 1.5 kg – about twice as much as the subjects in the Aerobic group. The weight they lost was all fat.
The maximal oxygen uptake – the most important factor when it comes to determining your endurance capacity and cardiovascular health – also increased most in the Combination group. So for overweight people who want to lose weight, the combination of strength and cardio training is not only more effective than either strength or cardio training alone, it’s also healthier.
“Currently, there are no specific recommendations for the type of exercise the overweight and obese should engage in”, the researchers write. “From our observations, combination exercise gave greater benefits for weight loss, fat loss and cardio-respiratory fitness than aerobic and resistance training modalities.”
The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, resistance or combination exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in the overweight and obese in a randomized trial.
Evidence suggests that exercise training improves CVD risk factors. However, it is unclear whether health benefits are limited to aerobic training or if other exercise modalities such as resistance training or a combination are as effective or more effective in the overweight and obese. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic, resistance, or combined exercise training would induce and sustain improvements in cardiovascular risk profile, weight and fat loss in overweight and obese adults compared to no exercise.
Twelve-week randomized parallel design examining the effects of different exercise regimes on fasting measures of lipids, glucose and insulin and changes in body weight, fat mass and dietary intake. Participants were randomized to either: Group 1 (Control, n = 16); Group 2 (Aerobic, n = 15); Group 3 (Resistance, n = 16); Group 4 (Combination, n = 17). Data was analysed using General Linear Model to assess the effects of the groups after adjusting for baseline values. Within-group data was analyzed with the paired t-test and between-group effects using post hoc comparisons.
Significant improvements in body weight (-1.6%, p = 0.044) for the Combination group compared to Control and Resistance groups and total body fat compared to Control (-4.4%, p = 0.003) and Resistance (-3%, p = 0.041). Significant improvements in body fat percentage (-2.6%, p = 0.008), abdominal fat percentage (-2.8%, p = 0.034) and cardio-respiratory fitness (13.3%, p = 0.006) were seen in the Combination group compared to Control. Levels of ApoB48 were 32% lower in the Resistance group compared to Control (p = 0.04).
A 12-week training program comprising of resistance or combination exercise, at moderate-intensity for 30 min, five days/week resulted in improvements in the cardiovascular risk profile in overweight and obese participants compared to no exercise. From our observations, combination exercise gave greater benefits for weight loss, fat loss and cardio-respiratory fitness than aerobic and resistance training modalities. Therefore, combination exercise training should be recommended for overweight and obese adults in National Physical Activity Guidelines.This clinical trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), registration number: ACTRN12609000684224.
PMID: 23006411 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3487794